Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

The NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Required for the Development of Hypoxemia in LPS/Mechanical Ventilation Acute Lung Injury

Heather D. Jones1,3, Timothy R. Crother2,3, Romer A. Gonzalez-Villalobos4, Madhulika Jupelli2,3, Shuang Chen2,3, Jargalsaikhan Dagvadorj2,3, Moshe Arditi2,3, and Kenichi Shimada2,3 Corresponding Author: Moshe Arditi

Abstract
IL-1β is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesized that LPS and mechanical ventilation (MV) together could lead to IL-1β secretion and the development of acute lung injury (ALI), and that this process would be dependent on caspase-1 and the nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific role of IL-1β, caspase-1, and the NLRP3 inflammasome in a two-hit model of ALI due to LPS plus MV. We used a two-hit murine model of ALI in which both inhaled LPS and MV were required for the development of hypoxemia, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar leakage. Nlrp3-deficent and Casp1-deficient mice had significantly diminished IL-1β levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and were specifically protected from hypoxemia, despite similar alveolar neutrophil infiltration and leakage. The IL-1 receptor antagonist, Anakinra, significantly improved the specific development of hypoxemia without significant effects on neutrophil infiltration or alveolar leakage. MV resulted in increased bronchoalveolar lavage extracellular ATP and alveolar macrophage apoptosis as triggers of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β production play a key role in ALI caused by the combination of LPS and MV, particularly in the hypoxemia associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Blocking IL-1 signaling in this model specifically ameliorates hypoxemia, without affecting neutrophil infiltration and alveolar leakage, disassociating these readouts of ALI. MV causes alveolar macrophage apoptosis, a key step in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and production of IL-1β.

Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society
:: Courtesy NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Database and The NIH (National Institutes of Health) ::

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379571/ 
http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1165/rcmb.2013-0071OC
http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1165/rcmb.2013-0087OC#.U6bopvldWSo
http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1165/rcmb.2007-0365OC#.U6bpEvldWSo


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